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            [post_date] => 2016-08-31 07:10:49
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            [post_title] => Nauta® Cyclomix High Intensity Mixer
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            [post_modified] => 2021-05-22 02:33:46
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            [post_date] => 2015-01-06 10:52:36
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The Alpine AFG Fluidized Bed Jet Mill is suitable for fine and ultrafine size reduction of any material up to a Moh's hardness of 10 that can be fluidized by the expanded compressed gas in the grinding chamber. The addition of an internal forced vortex classifier is capable of controlling particle top sizes (D97) as low as 3 microns.

The key to maintaining a consistent particle size distribution is the integral air classifier. Air classification is defined as the separation of bulk material according to the settling velocity in a gas. In this type of jet mill two opposing forces act on the particle, the mass force and the drag force. The particle size at which the mass force and the drag force act equally on the particle is defined as the cut point. If the mass force (or weight of the particle) exerts a greater influence on the particles coarser than the cut point, they are returned to the grinding zone of the jet mill and reduced further. If the drag force (or airflow through the classifier) acts upon particles finer than the cut size, they are carried through the classifier wheel and recovered as product.

By changing the parameter of classifier wheel speed, airflow, and grind pressure, a wide variety of particle size cut points can be achieved. Achievable particle size ranges include D97 as low as 3 microns to as high as 60 microns.

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The grinding air is injected tangentially via Laval nozzles in the nozzle ring into the machine. This causes a spiral jet of air to form in the grinding zone, from which the mill derives its name. A high pressure forms in the mill as a result of the spiral flow of air that can rise to 1 bar overpressure in operation without product. The integrated injector is charged with compressed air which ensures that the product is conveyed into the machine against the overpressure present in the machine. This, however, is associated with a considerable compressed air consumption, which can be as much as 30% of the total grinding air requirement.

The feed product circulates close to the nozzle ring and is thus intercepted repeatedly by the air jets exiting the nozzles. Comminution is the result of inter-particle collision caused by the particles flowing at different speeds in the nozzle jet. Comminuted material is conveyed along with the air to the discharge, the spiral flow subjects the particles to a classification: only fine particles are discharged, coarse particles remain in the mill.

Alpine® AS  Spiral Jet Mills are characterized by a special geometry of the mill housing in the area of the discharge, which contributes towards a finer classification effect and a sharp top cut.

The product also has an effect on the air flow within the machine: the more product there is in the machine, the more the spiral flow is braked and the lower is the centrifugal force and the coarser the end product. The relationship of the product to the classifying air flow rate is therefore the most significant parameter for setting the fineness of the spiral jet mill. In principle, different nozzle angles can also be used to achieve the required fineness values, whereby the complete nozzle ring must be exchanged in this case.

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Mikro ACM® Air Classifying Mills were invented by HMPS in the late 1960’s and are one of the most versatile types of size reduction equipment available in the market. These units while being capable of producing fine, medium and coarse grinds for a wide variety of materials for Food, Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Mineral industries, require very little maintenance over their life span. The basic design of these mills is the impact size reduction that is coupled with an internal dynamic classifier which controls the outlet (product) particle size via recirculating the coarse particles back into the grinding zone.

There are seven main factors which determine particle size distribution for the Mikro ACM® Air Classifying Mill. When varied, the rotor type and speed combined with the liner and hammer count affects the production of fines. The separator type and speed affects the top size of the product. And lastly, the airflow governs the throughput as well as top size and fines generation. With the endless available options a machine can be configured to process just about any material that is below MOH’s hardness of 5.

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The Nobilta is high performance powder processing machine used for particle design. It is capable of a wide range of fast mixing from macro mixing to micro mixing, particle composing, surface treatment and spheronization.

Typically with mixing / dispersion, the 3 mechanisms of convection, shear and diffusion are required, but in the case of composing of Nano-particles, an additional strong mill like mechanism (impact, compression, attrition) is required to overcome the strong agglomeration force of the Nano-particles. Typical mixers are biased towards one of the 3 mechanisms of mixing and either do not have the capability of composing requiring an additional composing machine, or do not have the ability to disperse Nano-particles resulting in agglomerates in the product. This resulted in no being able to achieve the target particle.

With the Nobilta, the combinations of compression, shear and impact forces are applied to the particle resulting in Nano-particles being composed efficiently without binder. The world leading composing performance of the Nobilta is in use in a wide range of industrial fields.

The Nobilta consists of a horizontal cylindrical vessel with a specially designed rotor rotating at a high speed of 30m/s. The rotor configuration has been designed to exert impact, compression and shear forces on each individual particle equally. Adjusting the rotor speed and run time controls the amount of processing (mixing, surface treatment) to the Nano-particles. The vessel is jacketed to prevent heat buildup when processing heat sensitive materials at high energy levels, preventing sticking and degradation. For processing of abrasive materials, optional hard surfaced or ceramic models are available. There are 6 different sized models from small laboratory scale (NOB-MINI) to large production sizes (NOB-1000).

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In Lithium Ion Batteries, recharge and discharge occurs through the movement of lithium ions between the cathode and anode. The material that takes in and discharges the lithium ion is called active material. Methods for producing these cathode active materials will be described in this passage. The production process is split into two separate procedures. The first is the chemical bonding process between active materials taken from materials called precursors; the second process is to adjust the synthesized active materials and coat onto the electrode current collector.

To start off, the technology behind precursors for cobalt based and manganese based cathode materials will be explained. While the leading cobalt based material is lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO2 LCO, there are other cobalt based materials called a ternary system such as Li (NiaMnbCo1-a-b) NMC and Li (NiaCobAl1-a-b) O2 NCA, as well as a quaternary system which is an active material made up of a complicated chemical composition. These materials are used in their respective fields to best utilize their features. For manganese-based materials, such materials as LiMn2O4 and Li2MnO3 can be named.

Cobalt based precursors include cobalt oxide, cobalt hydroxide, oxy cobalt hydroxide, cobalt carbonate, as well as lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, and manganese oxide. Manganese based precursors  include manganese oxides and lithium carbonates. Active materials are often produced by the solid phase method.

The following passage will be an introduction to dry grinding, precision mixing, and drying technology used in the precursor production process before the furnace stage for synthesis reaction.

The solid phase method consists of mixing numerous solid raw materials together and a calcinations process. To perform the solid phase procedure efficiently, minimizing the amount of unreacted materials and controlling the calcinations temperature is essential. This is done through fine grinding and precision mixing of the raw materials, making powder-processing technology an important aspect of the production process.

Fine particle production of raw materials:

Mixing solid state materials are performed by using raw material particulates. The larger the individual particle sizes are – the longer time it takes for the calcinations process. Also for a reaction to occur, more than two different materials need to come in contact with each other. The larger the particle size, the possibility of unreacted materials appearing in the product becomes larger. Since each raw material has a different specific density, it is prone to becoming non-uniform. Larger particles have a greater tendency of this problem, with the reactivity declining as well due to the reduction in contact area between the particles. To solve this problem, fine particle production of the raw material is needed with an emphasis put on minimizing the amount of metal contamination. This process can be performed with classifier integrated ACM Air Classifying Mill, fluidized bed jet mill AFG, and spiral jet mill. In recent trends, a classifier integrated target type jet mill is also utilized for producing finer and sharper particle distributions.

Precision mixing for solid-state reaction:

To accelerate the synthesis reaction through calcinations, separate precursor materials need to contact each other. However, from the fine particle production described in 2-1, the material’s adhesiveness and cohesiveness have increased making it difficult for different precursor materials to come in contact. To solve this problem, a mixer that can provide enough energy to the aggregates through impact and shearing force is essential. For this process, Hosokawa can offer the Cyclomix and Nobilta for this process which utilizes the impact and shearing strength, as well as compressed shearing force respectively.

Drying process:

Some cobalt-based materials are synthesized using a wet process and is then calcined to produce precursors. Before the calcinations process, there is a need to separate and clean the powder and solvent. Since the slurry form of the raw material has a high viscosity and its dry form has a highly adhesive and cohesive characteristic, continuous operation using a standard flash dryer is extremely difficult due to blockages developing relatively easily. Another important aspect is to prevent reformation of aggregates, such units as the media mixer type dryer Xerbis, which has zero metal contamination, and mixing type, vacuum dryer can be utilized.